Benefits of Fertility treatment in India from HealthcaretripIndia affiliated hospitals/IVF centers
- State of the art infrastructure
- Well equipped with the most advanced technology to deal with gamut of fertility issues and offer their respective infertility treatments like IVF, ICSI, IUI, laser assisted Hatching, IMSI, Egg and embryo donation, Embryo freezing Blastocyst culture and so on.
- Accredited with International organizations such as JCI for quality standards.
- USA, UK trained IVF specialists who are the pioneers in their field, have decades of experience and keep consistently evolving their knowledge and skill base with the rapidly evolving technology.
- Most affordable treatment cost without compromising on the quality.
- High success rate comparable to that in USA, UK
- Highly professional, English speaking and compassionate staff to complement. translators are also available, if need be.
- No waiting period
Infertility is defined as the inability to conceive even after one year of regular(once in every 2 to 3 days) unprotected sex i.e., without utilizing any method of contraception. According to statistics, generally around 85% of the couples conceive within an year of regular unprotected sex, however, in United Kingdom, infertility is only diagnosed if there is an inability to conceive even after 2 years or 24 months of regular unprotected sex, without contraception. According to the data provided by National Health Service, UK, 95% of the couples will conceive by 2 years. Infertility may be due to innate inability of one of the partner to contribute his/her bit in conception or even when the female is not able to carry the pregnancy to the full term.
Pregnancy happens when:
- Egg or ovum (female reproductive cell) is released by one of woman’s ovaries.(Ovulation)
- Sperm or male reproductive cell unites with ovum.(Fertilization)
- Fertilized egg travels through the fallopian tube until it reaches the uterus(womb).
- Fertilized egg adheres to the uterine wall.(Implantation)
Problem with one or more of the above milestones in the pregnancy process, may result in infertility.
There are mainly two types of infertility.
Primary Infertility: Primary Infertility term is used for the couples who have not been able to conceive at least once, even after an year of regular unprotected sex, without contraception.
Secondary Infertility: Secondary infertility term is used for the couples who were previously able to have their own, one or more biological child/children naturally but are inable to conceive now or carry the pregnancy to the full term.
CAUSES OF MALE INFERTILITY
A6 There are several causes responsible for male infertility. Semen analysis is carried out initially to determine whether male factor is responsible for infertility and if yes, then how and accordingly further course of action is planned by the specialist. Semen analysis looks into the appropriate concentration of sperms(number), their functional capacity(motility) and their structure(shape). The responsible causes of male infertility work by affecting sperm production, their quality (structure,motility,viability) and delivery. They can be summarized as follows:
Impaired testicular function or ejaculation
- Varicocele(abnormal enlargement of veins in the scrotum, the loose bag of skin in which the testes are present). It causes the testes to overheat which not only leads to low sperm production but also adversely affects their quality.
- Injury to the testes
- History of Undescended testicles or cryptorchidism
- Indiscriminate use of alcohol,excessive smoking, use of anabolic steroids or use of illicit drugs are some of the detrimental habits.
- Certain medications or summplements also adversely affects the male fertility.
- May be a result of cancer treatment such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy or surgical treatment that involves removal of one or both the testicles.
- Certain medical conditions may adversely affect testes such as Diabetes, Cyctic Fibrosis, some autoimmune disorders and infections such as Gonorrhoea, Chlamydia.
- Sperm delivery is compromised due to
- Blockage or damage resulting from injury or diseased condition of the reproductive organs in males.
- Genetic defects such as Cystic Fibrosis that results in abnormal development or absence of vas deferens, epididymidis(the muscular tubes that stores and transports sperm from the testes to the ejaculatory ducts).
- Premature Ejaculation
- Disorders of hypothalamus and pituitary gland leading to impaired testicular function. Prolactin secreting Pituitary tumor leads to increased production of hormone Prolactin, a condition referred to as Hyperprolactinemia which causes loss of libido, impaired sperm production, impotence. Hypothalamus and Pituitary gland in the brain produce hormones that are responsible for the normal function of the testes.
- Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
- Cushing’s syndrome
- Klinefelter’s syndrome, Y chromosome microdeletion are some of the genetic disorders that result in low or no sperm production.
CAUSES OF FEMALE INFERTILITY
Female infertility can be attributed to the disorders of one or more of the following:the ovaries, Fallopian tubes and uterus.
They need to be healthy and fully functional. The causes can be summarized as below:
- Impaired ovarian function wherein release of the egg from the ovaries(ovulation) is affected. It may be due to
- Polycystic Ovary Syndrome(PCOS): A medical condition characterized by development of several fluid filled sacs(cysts) in the ovaries. It is one of the most common reason for female infertility and is treatable. It is associated with hormonal imbalances leading to anovulation or irregular ovulation (release of eggs from the ovaries) indicated by irregular or no periods, weight gain, fertility issues and depression. It is also associated with increased level of male hormone (testosterone) responsible for acne, excess hair growth(hirsuitism) and hair thinning on the scalp.
- Diminished ovarian reserve (DOR): Every women is born with all the eggs she will ever have in her lifetime. As she ages, the number of eggs decrease naturally. However, there are various other congenital, medical, surgical or unknown causes responsible for abnormally low number of remaining eggs in the ovaries. As the condition’s name implies, diminished ovarian reserve means that there are less number of eggs left in the ovaries. Women with DOR may conceive naturally, however, their response to the fertility treatment may result in production of less number of eggs.
- Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhoea (FHA), a condition resulting from a lot of exercise, stress or extremely low body weight. It sometimes accompany eating disorders such as anorexia (loss of appetite).
- Inefficient functioning of hypothalamus and pituitary gland in the brain- Hormones released by hypothalamus and pituitary gland are responsible for the normal function of ovaries and release of eggs from them. However, in a medical condition Hyperprolactinemia, which is characterized by high production of hormone prolactin from the pituitary gland, woman may not ovulate.
- Premature Ovarian Insufficiency (POI), also referred to as Premature menopause, wherein ovaries stop functioning even before 40 yrs of woman’s age i.e., far earlier than the age when normal menopause sets in. Although there are certain conditions that makes a woman susceptible to POI, such as chemotherapy or pelvic irradiation exposure or certain medical conditions. Usually the cause is unknown.
- Menopause, a normal phase of woman’s life that sets in around 50 yrs of her age and is characterized by normal decline of ovarian function, hormones estrogen and progesterone are no longer produced by the ovaries and cessation of menstruation or periods. Once menopause begins, she is no longer able to conceive naturally. Menopause is considered to have set in if periods have not occurred for one whole year.
- Fallopian tube obstruction: A pair of thin and long muscular tubes in the abdominal cavity of the woman that extends from the ovaries to the uterus. Fully functional,normal, open and unobstructed fallopian or uterine tubes are paramount in successful spontaneous reproduction. They play a significant role in transport of reproductive cells(ovum and sperm), provide favorable environment for fertilization of egg and early embryo development. There are various tubal elements that come into play to make the tube work efficiently. They are rhythmic muscular contraction of the tube, ciliary function(thin hair like projections on the inside of the walls of the fallopian tube) and tubal secretions. History of pelvic infection, abdominal surgery, ruptured appendicitis, Chlamydia or Gonorrhea infection or endometriosis may point towards tubal blockage or occlusion.
- Uterus disorders such as uterine fibroid that distort the uterine cavity and make it difficult for implantation to take place. However, they are treatable. Scarring or adhesion within the uterus or malformation of the uterus are some other causes for female infertility.
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